Most people think of psychosis as a break with reality. In a way it is. Psychosis is a symptom, not an illness, and it is more common than you may think.
Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological disorder consisting of abnormal, involuntary body movements caused by certain medicines. It is usually associated with long-term use of medicines for treating schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tardive means "late" and dyskinesia means "abnormal movements.
Although near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS is a simple and non-invasive method for characterizing the clinical features of various psychiatric illnesses, few studies have used NIRS to directly investigate the association between prefrontal cortical activity and inhibitory control in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis MAP. Using a channel NIRS system, we compared hemodynamic responses during the Stroop color-word task in 14 patients with MAP and 21 healthy controls matched for age, sex and premorbid IQ. The MAP group exhibited significantly less activation in the anterior and frontopolar prefrontal cortex accompanied by lower Stroop color-word task performance, compared with controls.
Tardive dyskinesia TD is a movement disorder characterized by uncontrolled facial movements, such as repetitive tongue movements, chewing or sucking motions, and involuntarily making faces. It may also involve movements of the limbs or torso. It is caused by long-term use of neuroleptic drugs as well as other drugs that increase the brain's sensitivity to the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Other forms of self-injury include excessive scratching to the point of drawing blood, punching self or objects, infecting oneself, inserting objects into body openings, drinking something harmful like bleach or detergentand breaking bones purposefully. People who self-injure commonly report they feel empty inside, over or under stimulated, unable to express their feelings, lonely, not understood by others and fearful of intimate relationships and adult responsibilities. Self-injury is their way to cope with or relieve painful or hard-to-express feelings, and is generally not a suicide attempt.
Excoriation disorder also referred to as chronic skin-picking or dermatillomania is a mental illness related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Individuals may pick at healthy skin, minor skin irregularities e. This disorder is usually chronic, with periods of remission alternating with periods of greater symptom intensity.
A large number of toxic or psychoactive substances can cause psychotic reactions. Such substance-induced psychosis can occur in multiple ways. First, people may inadvertently ingest toxic substances by accident, either because they don't know any better as is the case when a child eats lead paint chips, or mercury in tuna fishor by mistake such as when someone eats a poison mushroom they thought was safe, or gets food poisoning from mishandled food. Alternatively, people may take too much of a legitimately prescribed medicine, medicines may interact in unforeseen ways, or doctors may miscalculate the effects of medicines they prescribe.
Psychosis has been associated with adult victimisation. However, it remains unclear whether psychosis predicts incident adult victimisation, or whether adult victimisation predicts incident psychosis. Furthermore, a moderating effect of childhood victimisation on the association between psychosis and adult victimisation has not been investigated.